It's a little tough to follow your code, and perhaps that's the problem. So, in English, it seems that what you want to do is display the attachments for each item in a list view as a new column on the left side of the view.
It's also a little hard to know how your selectors are going to work without seeing the markup from the view. There must also be more jQuery code involved or the line ID: $(this).attr("ows_ID"),
wouldn't make any sense.
You're creating a link for each attachment, which makes sense, but then you seem to be adding that link to *all* of the items in the view (based on your $(".ms-vb-title table").each(function()
What you're doing ought to be possible. but you're just not there yet. My suggestion would be to put the script into a file in a Document Library and use the Content link in your CEWP. That will allow you faster "round trips" in your debugging.